Resources and Guidelines for Fieldwork in Berkeley Synagogues (2017 Edition)

Dear Class,

As we have been discussing since the beginning of the Semester (and as indicated in our Class Syllabus), this Fall we are taking advantage of the fact that our class time coincides with a major Jewish Festival, Sukkot (Hebrew for “booths” or “tabernacles;” the link will take you to the “Sukkot” entry in EJ, assigned this week), to plan two field trips to local (Berkeley) synagogues in order to explore Jewish nightlife and to learn about fieldwork.

The festival of Sukkot lasts seven days, followed, on the eight day, by shemini ‘atzeret (Hebrew for “eighth [day] of closing [assembly]) and Simchat Torah (Hebrew for “rejoicing of the Torah,” when the yearly cycle of reading the Hebrew Bible in the synagogue begins anew). Our field trips are scheduled so that we can witness the end of the festival, and hopefully the dancing and singing on the night of Simchat Torah, as well as a more “normative” Friday Evening (Sabbath Eve) Service.

As a reminder, the Jewish calendar is “lunisolar,”that is, based on the lunar cycle, but also integrated with the solar cycle. Therefore, Jewish holidays always fall during the same season each year, but not always on the same date of the Gregorian calendar. This year, the first day of Sukkot falls on Wednesday, October 5, and shemini ‘atzeret falls on Wednesday, October 12 (both days begin the night before, as we’ve learned in class…).

This presents us with the chance to conduc two field trips to local (Berkeley) synagogues and witness Jewish nightlife “in action”! Since at this point of the semester we have been learning about the different Jewish musical traditions in the diaspora, and about how sounds can define the identity of a group, everyone in the class is required to visit two different synagogues, and reflect on the similarities and the differences presented by each one. This will be a unique chance to experience and reflect upon the cultures we are studying in class by observing some of its manifestations in situ, and to further our understanding of fieldwork dynamics.

Below I am detailing how the field trips can take place.

Please read the whole message, and register for the field trips (a registration form has already been shared with you). If the instructions are not clear, ask questions during lecture time on Tuesday (October 3). If the trips present a challenge of any sort, promptly inform me by email (ASAP).

All the best,
Francesco

PS: Try clicking on the links above. If you are off Campus and you can read the corresponding entries in the Encyclopaedia Judaica, it means you’ve successfully configured your access to UCB’s electronic resources… Otherwise, read here. (If you are reading this post and do not have UC Berkeley or other academic credentials, the links may not work at all… Sorry about that!).

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ASSIGNMENT / FIELD TRIPS

Visit two (2) synagogues during the two weeks of the Sukkot Festival

1. Consult the list of Jewish congregations in Berkeley
Make sure you know where you are going ahead of time!
A list of Berkeley congregations is available online at this link. It includes addresses, contact information, and website links as of a couple of years ago (this information is also available via the links posted in the Field Trip Registration Form I shared with you weeks ago; see bCourses announcements).
Note that these congregations are not listed in order of importance (but the first two are very close to Campus), and that not all of them will be holding services during the upcoming holiday.
IMPORTANT NOTE: Each congregation operates according to different (and often site-specific) guidelines. It is important to notice these differences, and to plan your fieldwork accordingly.
2. Choose two (2) different synagogues
Individual visits should be long enough for each student to be able to observe nightlife as it is happening (plan to be on site for at least one hour).
Please remember that you must visit two (2) different synagogues on two separate field trips.
3. Register for each field trip
  • Add your name (First, Last) and the date/time of each of your planned visits to the corresponding synagogue on the Field Trip Registration Form.
    A limited number of students can visit a synagogue at the same time (to limit your impact on the congregations you will be visiting).
  • You must use your @berkeley.edu login to bDrive to access the registration spreadsheet (more information here).
  • Registration closes at the times indicated on the Field Trip Registration Form. Make sure you name is on the spreadsheet for both field trips by then! 
4. Plan your visits (field trips)
  • Read the congregations’ websites (links provided in the shared spreadsheet), and document yourself on the background and history of each of the two congregations you are planning to visit (How? Read the /about section of the websites to begin with!).
  • Plan your trip (all congregations are located within walking distance, and near public transportation), to make sure you maximize the time at your disposal.
  • In general, make sure you have as much information with you BEFORE your trip, so that DURING the trip you can focus on researching your surroundings.
5. During your visits: seven general rules of conduct
Remember that you will be visiting ritual spaces, and that you may not be aware of all the rules of conduct that govern them. You won’t be the only one in that situation (we have learned that Jewish ritual rules can be fairly complex), but… Be as respectful as you can of your (unfamiliar?) surroundings!
  • Dress appropriately (use your judgment), and be quiet (i.e., not loud: this will also enhance your chances of observing as much as possible of your surroundings)
  • Silence and put away your phone
  • Stand when people stand, sit when they sit
  • Find a Prayer Book (see where they are located, usually outside the “sanctuary,” and don’t be shy in picking one up), and remember to return it to its place before leaving
  • Ask for page numbers in the Prayer Book (Don’t be shy about asking for assistance!).
  • Introduce yourself if anyone asks you why you are there. As we discussed some weeks ago, there is a long-standing history of synagogue visits done by “strangers” (Jewish visitors from out of town, Jewish members of other congregations, and non-Jewish visitors), so your presence will not be out of the ordinary. But it will definitely be noticed.
  • Do not take notes, do not take photographs, do not make audio recordings, do not use any electronic devices while you are inside a synagogue: many congregations (but not all) ban the use of electricity and writing during certain holidays and the Sabbath
  • Do your best to minimize your luggage (backpacks, etc.), and try to not have any with you if possible (unless, of course, you absolutely need your backpack with you).
6. During your visits: observe and listen to your surroundings (field work)
Be as aware of your surroundings as you can. Look for the following:
  • Architectural space: what does it look like, how is space distributed and occupied, etc.
  • Population: number of people attending, age, gender, dress code(s).
  • Use of space gender and age.
  • Languages (of the prayer books, of people conducting the prayers, etc.).
  • Sounds and music: any particular sounds? recognizable melodies? identifiable musical style or styles?
  • Also, refer to the four parameters listed in the Listening Guide we referred to for the past three weeks (soundscape; performance stylelanguage; and context), to the visual charts discussed in class, and to the articulation of the synagogue’s “cast of characters” in this week’s assigned reading (excerpted from S. Heilman’s Synagogue Life, also assigned this week).
7. After your visits: Take Notes (field notes)
As soon as you are able to, write down your observations on the points listed above (No. 6), or on additional details and impressions you may have gathered from your visit.
Try to be as systematic as you can in collecting your notes, so that you can compare them from one field trip to the next.
8. After your visits: Class Work
We will be comparing notes and impressions in class, and you will be asked to incorporate your observations in class discussions.
9. About the instructor’s participation
Your instructor (that’s me!) will be also visiting Berkeley synagogues at this time. But I will not register online, and will only see those of you who are registered for the same field trips on such occasions. I plan to share my observations with the class as well.

 

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Jewish Liturgical Music: Intersections and Subversions

Finding our topic, Jewish nightlife, involves researching the intersections of many networks.

Let’s quickly review:

  1. Maps and Timelines: Jewish liturgical music is determined by the historical distribution of Jews in diaspora
  2. Textual networks: Jewish liturgical music is mostly built on Jewish literary texts, which are themselves the result of a network (or web) of textual sources and languages
  3. Ritual identity: Jewish liturgical music is also determined by how the texts of the rituals evolve across time and space
  4. Modes of musical production: the different musical worlds, aesthetics, performance styles, repertoires, found across the Jewish diaspora, and produced both within, outside, and in collaboration with surrounding non-Jewish cultures
  5. In this context, Jewish liturgical music interacts with location, historical memory, literary text, language, aesthetics, and constitutes a negotiation, carried out in real time, among each of these dimensions. Some examples of this negotiation can be isolated, and perhaps understood, by looking at the following
    • Liturgical and Para-liturgical practices: how the intersection between music and the other dimensions listed above highlights the inner conflicts between normative (i.e., the behaviors dictated by religious authorities) and non-normative (i.e., how people behave subversively in relationship to the normative) dimensions of Judaism by modifying, at times just slightly, ritual behavior, and adapting ritual to various occurrences (such as lifecycle events)
    • Musical performance practices: for example, the seamless alternation of “chant” and “tunes” within the musical rendition of liturgical texts

Think about how Jewish liturgical music reached mainstream audiences in the opening scene of Schindler’s List (1993), a context that is quite far removed from the archival recordings we have been listening to thus far:

This scene presents viewers with an essential moment in Jewish para-liturgical practice, the qidush (Heb. קידוש, commonly spelled Kiddush), or the blessings recited at the eve of the Sabbath (and of other Holidays, albeit with slightly different texts) around the family table. (Note that the Kiddush is also recited in the synagogue, but that’s another story…).

There are two lines of questioning that may arise from (re)watching this scene.

On the one hand, the musical aspect: does this pertain to the musical area we generally defined as “chant,” or to the one we generally defined as “tune” (and what kind of chant/tune it may be, based on our knowledge of musical culture in the Jewish diaspora)?

On the other hand, the layers of meaning (and especially the related musical representations of identity) that this scene may contain: here, ritual is both presented as a symbol (of what?) and as a staged performance. Why was this scene chosen to open Schindler’s List?

Time, or Rhythm? Some (Visual) Thoughs on Jewish Liturgy

Over time, I have found that a useful way to discuss Jewish liturgy (or the complex array of liturgical and paraliturgical rituals found in Jewish communities across the global diaspora) is through visual means.

Here are some iPad-generated infographics. I created them long ago, and every time I review them, I end up questioning them in new ways. Consider them as “conversation starters,” rather than fully formed ideas…

1. Jewish liturgy: an ecosystem?

The Jewish Liturgical Ecosystem

As I review the idea that Jewish liturgy is like an ecosystem (aka, a complex network), I feel strongly that it is entirely based on time, and that text and music (or sound, or interpretation) come after. But, recently, I have started to wonder whether the foundation is better defined by rhythm than by time: the rhythm provided by the interpretation of nature, to begin with (sunset/sundown; the lunar cycle; the yearly cycle). [Note: not by nature, but by its (human) interpretation].

The Time/Text relationship in Jewish liturgy

2. A complex network of liturgical texts

The corpus of Jewish literature (mostly in Hebrew and Aramaic, but at times in other Jewish languages) is activated in the context of the liturgy. Here’s a quick (but really, really quick) summary/list.

The Texts of Jewish Liturgy

Please note that just as “Bible” is a network of texts, “Talmud” is a placeholder for a broader network of texts, and that texts like the Midrash are also part of the network. These networks are thus part of an ecosystem. See for example the visualization of the intertextual connections between the Bible and the Talmud provided by the awesome Sefaria:

Connections between Talmud and Tanakh | Sefaria Visualization

Then think that the interconnections between these texts and poetry are constantly activated in the context of the liturgy.

In analyzing the first stanza of the liturgical poem, Lekhah dodi:

Hebrew
שָׁמוֹר וְזָכוֹר בְּדִבּוּר אֶחָד
הִשְׁמִיעָנוּ אֵל הַמְּיֻחָד

Hebrew transliteration
shemor ve-zakhor be-dibur echad
hishmi’anu el ha-meyuchad

English translation
‘protect’ and ‘rember’– in one utterance
the unique god let us hear

Abraham Z. Idelsohn (Jewish Liturgy X:128-129; please note that this is our textbook) highlights the intertextual connections of the text, thus uncovering the textual network it activates, and at the same time points to the wide variety of its musical renditions across the diaspora:

“Come, my friend, to meet the bride…” — Lecha dodi — is a poem by Solomon Alkabetz (1505-diest after 1572); he was the brother-in-law of Moses Cordovero, lived in Safed, and was encouraged by Isaac Luria to compose this poem about 1571 (Hemdath Yamim, Leghorn, 1763, I, 41; Seder Hayyom, l.c.).

This poem spread to all Jewish communities and became a favorite text for Synagogal composers, so that over two thousand settings were composed to it.

The name of the author is to be found as an acrostic at the beginnings of the stanzas: Shelomo hallewi. The poem starts out with a refrain based on b. Sabbath 119a. In the first stanza: “Observe and Remember,” the author refers to the Midrashic explanation (b. Shevuoth 20b) of the discrepancy between the two versions of the fourth Commandment in Exodus 20:8 and Deuteronomy 5:12, according to which God uttered both words simultaneously.

By using the Piyyut website, you can listen to many of the thousands of musical settings of this fundamental poem.

3. Music (or sound): Different modes to interpret text 

Music in Jewish Liturgy: "chants" and "tunes"

4. The relationship between text, music, and (cultural) identity

Musical Expressions of Jewish Identity

Studying (Jewish) Culture, Understanding Diasporas

Two approaches to be discussed in class this week.

First, the “linguistic model” (a tree…):

Then, a “mind map”:

Ward Shelley's Jewish Diaspora Painted Mindmap

And, finally, a visual approach to Jewish liturgical diversity that combines both models:

Historical Map of Jewish Liturgies (Nusḥaot-Tree-2.4.5)

If it all seems cryptic, it’s because–at least in my view–it has a lot to do with labyrinths…

Vote on Everything: Best Songs About #Night

Who knew?

It’s a free country, and one can even vote on the “best songs about night” via Ranker: http://www.ranker.com/list/best-songs-about-night/reference


Also, here are 10 top-ranked rock “night songs” are listed at ultimateclassicrock.com


And yet, to me, these are the winners:

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Eine kleine Nachtmusik KV 525 (Serenade No. 13 for strings in G major), whose title loosely translates into “a small nighttime music,” composed in 1787:

Also on YouTube with score visualization:

An American classic, Night and Day (1932, by Cole Porter):

And a Jewish classic, bin el barah oul youm (“Between twilight and day”), a North-African popular song set to Arabic and Hebrew lyrics about life, hope, love, and, of course, night and day. The melody is also commonly used to sing the text of the Sabbath table song (zemirah) in Hebrew, Ki eshmerah shabat (follow the link on Firefox to listen to various versions from the global Jewish diaspora), attributed to Rabbi Avraham Ibn Ezra (12th century).

Performed here by the Moroccan Israeli singer, Emil Zrihan:

On the basis of a much earlier version (in Arabic) by the Algerian-Jewish gay pop music star, Salim Halali (Algeria 1920 – France 2005) [the main song theme begins at circa 1’50” into the recording, following a heart-melting introduction; if you like SH, read on here, a delightful post by Chris Silver on the Jewish Morocco blog]:

A common thread? The nexus between #nighttime, #love, and #subversive behaviors. Regardless of musical styles, languages, or geographic origins.

In the Beginning, a Word Cloud…

 

As I am about to distribute a syllabus to students, I like to do a visual check of what I have been writing (and thinking). Typically, I use Wordle, perhaps because I like the ease with which I can switch among different layouts.

So, here’s the description of Jewish Nighlife in three word-cloud formats:

Jewish Nightlife Wordle (2017-1)

and

Jewish Nightlife Wordle (2017-3)

and finally

Jewish Nightlife Wordle (2017-2)

One of the main things I observe in these layouts is the prominence of performance. This indeed reflects my own interests—the interconnections between ritual, artistic, and classroom performance arenas—but I had not immediately realized that this is how the course is structured. I also see a word missing: subversiveness—even though this is one of my main underlying interests in studying the intersection between night, music, poetry, and ritual, I find it revealing that it is not featured at all in the course description.

An intellectual (and activist) agenda hidden in a (word) cloud…

Jewish Nightlife is Back! Fall 2017 at UCB

This Fall Semester Jewish Nightlife will return to UC Berkeley, and feature weekly workshops with the internationally acclaimed artist, Victoria Hanna (Jerusalem). The course will include history, performance, ethnographic fieldwork, and an in-depth study of Jewish protective amulets from The Magnes Collection.

Find out how to register here (for Jewish Studies) and here (for Music).

Stay tuned for more information, but in the meantime, enjoy Victoria Hanna’s video, 22 Letters…

…and read & download the course flyer: